Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), also known as Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. Nineteen cytokine ligands have been identified as part of the TNF family on the basis of sequence, functional, and structural similarities. Family members include TNF beta (TNFSF1), TNF alpha (TNFSF2), Lymphotoxin beta (TNFSF3), OX40 Ligand (TNFSF4), CD40 Ligand (TNFSF5), Fas Ligand (TNFSF6), CD27 Ligand (TNFSF7), CD30 Ligand (TNFSF8), 4-1BB Ligand (TNFSF9), TRAIL (TNFSF10), TRANCE/RANKL (TNFSF11), TWEAK (TNFSF12), APRIL(TNFSF13), BAFF (TNFSF13B), LIGHT (TNFSF14), TL1A/VEGI (TNFSF15), and GITR Ligand (TNFSF18).
RANKL regulates bone remodeling and the development of the thymus, lymph nodes and mammary glands. Overproduction of RANKL is implicated in a variety of degenerative bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.