C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10, is a member of the C-X-C chemokine family and is closely related to two other CXC chemokines: CXCL9 and CXCL11.
There have been 17 different C-X-C chemokines described in mammals that are subdivided into two categories: those with a specific amino acid sequence (or motif) of glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (or ELR for short) immediately before the first cysteine of the C-X-C motif (ELR-positive), and those without an ELR motif (ELR-negative). ELR-positive C-X-C chemokines specifically induce the migration of neutrophils and interact with chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. C-X-C chemokines that lack the ELR motif are chemoattractant for lymphocytes. The ELR-negative chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10) elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3.
CXCL10 (IP-10) is secreted by several cell types in response to IFN-gamma. These cell types include monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. CXCL10 (IP-10) has been attributed to several roles, such as chemoattraction for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, promotion of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells, antitumor activity, and inhibition of bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis.